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Advantages & Disadvantages of Role Play, Perceptual Knowledge and Demonstration Nursing Education

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Role Play as Teaching Strategy In Nursing Education

    Role play is a dramatic approach in which individuals assume the roles of others. It may be scripted; unscripted, spontaneous; or semi structured interactions that are observed by others for analysis and interpretation of learning outcomes. This strategy can be used in class or online.

Teaching Tips Role Play In Nursing Education

    Faculty need to plan thoroughly for role play, but they also need to be prepared to monitor and modify student actions and reactions if necessary. Situations that involve conflicting emotions provide good scenarios for role playing.

    Typical organization of the role play involves briefing, setting the stage, and explaining the objectives, which is usually the shortest stage; running, acting out the role play, which may take from 5 to 20 minutes; and debriefing, discussion, analysis, and evaluation of the role playing experience, which may last 30 to 40 minutes or more. 

    The debriefing is the most important stage of the role play, so students can clarify actions and alternative decisions can be explained, observation skills can be enhanced, and other interpersonal reactions can be anticipated. Videotaping or audiotaping of the role play may aid in the debriefing stage. 

    The technique works best with small groups of students so all those not involved in the role play can become active observers. Students should be encouraged to respond naturally to the role play and avoid insincere acting. Criticism should be directed to the behaviors exhibited in the role play and not to specific students.

Advantages of Role Play In Nursing Education

    Role play increases observational skills, improves decision making skills, and increases comprehension of complex human behaviors. It provides immediate feedback about the interpersonal and problem solving skills used in the role play and provides a nonthreatening environment in which to try out unfamiliar communication and decision making techniques. 

    Role play is good for adult learners because of the connection to real life situations and active participation. It does not generate extra costs because props, handouts, and so on are typically not used.

Disadvantages of Role Play In Nursing Education

    Students may be reluctant to participate if they do not feel as if it reflects real-life situations, and is seen as simply play-acting. There is a high time cost for faculty to develop scenarios. Faculty who likes to be in charge of the learning environment may be frustrated by this method. Stereotypical behavior can be reinforced, and role play can be a costly use of class time if it is not planned appropriately.

Procedural Knowledge In Nursing Education

    Procedural knowledge involves how to do something, methods of inquiry, and criteria for using skills, algorithms, techniques, and methods. Teaching strategies relating to procedural knowledge are algorithms, demonstration, games, imagery and mindfulness, posters, self learning modules, simulation , and writing.

   Algorithms are a step-by-step approach for clinical decision-making based on evidence. This refers to any course in which frequent practice is required for student mastery of content, in which rules aid in problem solving, or in which the content can be broken into concrete stages. This strategy may be completed online or in class, and is well suited for peer or inter professional learning in pairs or groups.

Teaching Tips for Perceptual Knowledge In Nursing Education

    Assess content for appropriate use of algorithms as a teaching strategy. Develop an algorithm and accompanying student explanations of how to use it. Allow 6 to 8 hours for the development of the first algorithms. Additional algorithms on similar content typically take less time to develop.

Advantages of Perceptual Knowledge in Nursing Education

    An algorithm shows students how to “spot” the most relevant information for problem solving; it develops reliable, complex problem-solving abilities even in novice students and decreases the amount of one-on-one instruction often required when teaching problem-solving techniques. 

    It is effective in teaching complex procedures that involve many steps. When used with case studies, it may enhance learning. It saves student time in trying to remember and understand complex phenomena, and is especially helpful for students with little clinical experience. It is effective in promoting learning and adherence to best practices.

Disadvantages of Perceptual Knowledge 

    The teacher must clearly define the steps or students will not be able to complete the task accurately. Students may need to be taught how to use algorithms in problem solving. The development of algorithms can be time consuming for faculty. Algorithms cannot substitute for clinical reasoning in decision-making in practice.

Demonstration of Perceptual Knowledge 

    Students show learning outcomes through such things as projects, presentations, or learning objects, revealing to what degree they have met the learning objectives. 

    Typically, demonstration is both a learning experience for the student and a means of evaluating academic progress by the educator. This strategy should be used for complex mental or psychomotor skill acquisition. It is suited for online and in-class assignments, and is well suited for inter professional learning.

Teaching Tips of Perceptual Knowledge 

    Have students show the steps of the process clearly, from start to finish. Ask students to go through the process a second time, showing the rationale and allowing time for questions. Provide for immediate, individual, supervised practice sessions. 

    Video recordings may be used for student review before and after the demonstration. Demonstrations may be planned, implemented, reviewed, and revised through online videos.

 Advantages of of Perceptual Knowledge 

 Visibly showing a process often aids in retention. Complex skills become more understandable as a result of the demonstration, and demonstration allows an expert to model the skill. Tailored performance feedback enhances retention and procedural knowledge is enhanced for future problem-solving and metacognitive knowledge.

Disadvantages of Perceptual Knowledge 

    Students have differing levels of skill acquisition abilities. Students who quickly master skills may become uninterested while the others are practicing. Mastering psychomotor skills is usually very stressful for many students and requires adequate faculty supervision, space, supplies, and equipment to provide realistic practice sessions.

    There is a high faculty workload involved in supervision of student practice times and a high cost of supplies and equipment may limit the amount of practice time available to students.

 

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